Engineering (PhD)

2020-21 (also available for 2021-22)

This course is eligible for Doctoral loan funding. Find out more.

Start date

21 September 2020

13 January 2021

26 April 2021

Duration

The maximum duration for a full-time PhD is 3 years (36 months) with an optional submission pending (writing up period) of 12 months.

Sometimes it may be possible to mix periods of both full-time and part-time study.

Application deadlines

For PGR start date January 2020

29 November 2019

For PGR start date April 2020

11 February 2020

For PGR start date September 2020

02 July 2020

About the research degree

A PhD is the highest academic award for which a student can be registered. This programme allows you to explore and pursue a research project built around a substantial piece of work, which has to show evidence of original contribution to knowledge.

A PhD is a programme of research, culminating in the production of a large-scale piece of written work in the form of a research thesis that should not normally exceed 80,000 words (excluding ancillary data).

Completing a PhD can give you a great sense of personal achievement and help you develop a high level of transferable skills which will be useful in your subsequent career, as well as contributing to the development of knowledge in your chosen field.

You are expected to work to an approved programme of work including appropriate programmes of postgraduate study (which may be drawn from parts of existing postgraduate courses, final year degree programmes, conferences, seminars, masterclasses, guided reading or a combination of study methods).

You will be appointed a main supervisor who will normally be part of a supervisory team, comprising up to three members to advise and support you on your project.

Entry requirements

The normal level of attainment required for entry is:

  • A Master’s degree or an honours degree (2:1 or above) or equivalent, in a discipline appropriate to the proposed programme to be followed, or appropriate research or professional experience at postgraduate level, which has resulted in published work, written reports or other appropriate evidence of accomplishment.

If your first language is not English, you will need to meet the minimum requirements of an English Language qualification. The minimum for IELTS is 6.0 overall with no element lower than 5.5, or equivalent will be considered acceptable. Read more about the University’s entry requirements for students outside of the UK on our Where are you from information pages.

Why choose Huddersfield?


There are many reasons to choose the University of Huddersfield and here are just five of them:

  1. We were named University of the Year by Times Higher Education in 2013.
  2. Huddersfield is the only University where 100% of permanent teaching staff are Fellows of the Higher Education Authority.
  3. Our courses have been accredited by 41 professional bodies.
  4. 94.6% of our postgraduate students go on to work and/or further study within six months of graduating.
  5. We have world-leading applied research groups in Biomedical Sciences, Engineering and Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities.

What can I research?

There are several research topics available for this degree. See below examples of research areas including an outline of the topics, the supervisor, funding information and eligibility criteria:

Outline

The project looks at using inverse problem approach to develop turbo-machines such as compressors, turbines and pumps for better efficiency, operation and reliability. State of the art numerical, analytical and experimental techniques will be used for such purposes.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

Crime scene reconstruction is a forensic science discipline in which one gains explicit knowledge of the series of events that surround the commission of a crime using deductive and inductive reasoning physical evidence scientific methods and their interrelationships. This programme aims at investigating innovative forensic imaging techniques for producing accurate reproduction of a crime scene or an accident scene for the benefit of a court or to aid in an investigation. The programme will start from reviewing the state-of-the-art of 3D imaging techniques such as Augmented Reality and stereoscopy for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image. The research will then propose innovative 3D imaging approaches based on photogrammetry theories and recent developments in remote sensing technologies for the acquisition and understanding of accurate and reliable measurements of a diverse range of natural and manmade structures including underground disturbances. The research encompasses scientific disciplines including image networks and sequences vision metrology laser scanning and range imaging as well as 3D modelling and interactive visualisation. The research output is anticipated to benefit forensic applications such as stockpile monitoring and underground abnormality detection.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

The project will develop an artificial intelligent (AI) monitoring approach based on Convolutional Neural Network(CNN). Rather than conventional vibroacoutic data, remote thermal images will be used as the main input to map to the CFD analysis results, such a model can be more generic as the data more robust to various uncertainties such as the noise and signal paths in vibration measurements. Once the CNN model is calibrated with both experimental and CFD datasets under various operating conditions of a machine, it can be implemented online for abnormal detection, and then aided by CFD analysis to identify the fault sources and severity offline, thus leading to engineering interoperations of the AI results and wide generalisation and advancements of AI algorithms in the fields of condition monitoring. Pumps and compressors, which are of main equipment in different process industries, will be based on to develop such AI based digital twin monitoring system.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

Conventional measurements such as shaft encoder based instantaneous angular speed (IAS), contact accelerometer based translational vibrations often suffer from poor signal to noise ratio and high cost for deployment. Recent advancement in high speed cameras offer opportunities to visualise the dynamic behaviours of rotors in both rotational and translational directions, leading to a wealthy of information for diagnostics with more cost-effectiveness. The project will focus on developing techniques to extract relative diagnostic information of a rotor based on images from high speed cameras. Both a first law model and an artificial intelligent (AI) model will be investigated to gain the dynamic behaviours of images under various common faults for both linear and nonlinear rotors. The model residuals between the two models will be used as the references for online fault detection and diagnostics.

Low speed Wind turbine, marine power trains, cranes, and compressors in different process industries will be the targeted applications in terms of the digital twin monitoring system.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

Wind farm efficiency is somewhat determined by turbine efficiency, which in tum depends upon wake effects. Turbines situated wholly or partially in the wake of leading turbines are severely restricted in their efficiency, according to size, wind speed and direction and spacing between turbines. The aim of the project is to create a semi-analytical model of air flow behind a horizontal axis wind turbine, principally for use by wind farm designers in the industry. Current models are either too crude to be of certain value or too sophisticated (or time­ consuming) to be incorporated into iterative turbine placement design schemes or software. The most common and crudest model still in use was devised in 1983. Applicants will need a sound Mechanical or Energy Engineering background and a good understanding of the near field aerodynamics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. The project requires a very numerate approach and a good background in applications of mathematics would also be required. For calibration and validation of the model a number of simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics will be necessary and applicants should be well versed in this type of work, preferably using ANSYS Fluent or similar software.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

The group has developed a system to allow a full digital audio workstation to be made accessible through the web. It uses HTML5, Canvas and the Web Audio API. This project is to understand and develop this work further to consider the following:

  1. An interface for other devices (such as game controllers) to control sound synthesis and music parameters in real time.
  2. The use of live image processing to control sound synthesis and music parameters in real time.

Applicants should have some experience of programming, preferably in 1 or more of the following languages: HTML5, JavaScript, Java, C or C++. Knowledge of the Web Audio API is a distinct advantage. An interest in electronic music performance or composition would be desirable but not essential.

Please note, applicants wishing to undertake this project as an MSc by Research will also be considered.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

The project will investigate the intelligence for the diagnosis of the abnormal machinery in different processing industries such as petrochemical and steel production lines, which are often of a large-scale with multiple machines and high risk environments.

A robot with airborne acoustic arrays will be developed to build a cost effect monitoring platform for such scenarios. Specifically, the arrays will be automatically tuned for different purposes. When the robot patrols in a defined route the array will be configured automatically with large dimensions to scan large area for abnormal sounds. Once an abnormal sound is detected the array will be reconfigured based on sound directions and spectrum so that the acoustic information can not only direct the robot to move closer to the abnormal sources but also adaptively refine the information to identify the root and cause of the faults detected. The key technologies will be researched in the directions of sound beam forming, wavelet based denoising, cross modulation spectrum analysis and intelligent algorithms along with the new advances in the topic of indoor robot positioning.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

The research project is to develop ultra-precision manufacturing with embedded on-machine measurement system to the fabrication of functional surfaces. The machining technologies can be developed based on one of the following methods including single point diamond turning , fast-tool-servo, fly cutting and micro milling. The functional surfaces to be machined are free from and/or structured surface with various applications in optics. A typical case study will be focused on the fabrication of optical lenses. Simulation work will also be carried out in this project to find the optimised processing parameters. The selected PhD student will be trained to operate machine tools and other related measurement equipment.

The application must have MSc research degree on mechanical engineering/informatics or will receive his/her MSc degree before they start the PhD study in September. The applicant should have education background/working experience on metal cutting or control system and have publications (conferences/journals, paper/books chapter) in this research area.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

The way in which temperature change affects the performance of machine tools remains an unanswered challenge. There are several instances at which machine thermal conditions inevitably change from its current state such as machining itself, environmental conditions, development of air pockets during machining, production- intermittent processes, etc. To enable Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to match and precisely simulate these time-variant boundary conditions, an interface link must be created between the FEA software and sensing or monitoring devices to allow live feedback of data to adapt the computation.

This project aims to develop an interface link between the FEA software and external sensing devices using e.g. Python programming to enable the simulation of time-varying boundary conditions. To ensure the quality and usability of the captured data, optimisation, reduction and machine learning techniques will be developed and tested on different platforms, including high-performance computing (HPC) or graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated computing.

The project would be suitable for a computer programmer with an interest in advanced engineering applications, or a mechanical/design engineer with good programming skills.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

Through previous collaborative research a novel electron beam, powder bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) process has been developed. The new process has significant commercial (mass of material processed per hour) and technical (very broad process window allowing material microstructure control and in-process monitoring for quality assurance) benefits over current e-beam and laser based powder bed systems available on the market today. The new technology patented as NeuBeam is capable of neutralizing the charge accumulation that tends to occur with other electron beam technologies such as electron beam melting (EBM). This results in potentially a wider range of viable print parameters when compared to other electron beam or laser-based PBF technologies. The NeuBeam Technology is new and its full potential for processing Ti alloys has yet to be established. In order for it to become accepted in the market, material studies are needed to validate the claims and explore the boundaries and capabilities of this exciting technology. This validation work will be a core part of the proposed PhD. The novelty of the work lies in the application of the new processing technology to Ti structures with complex geometries and lattice structures as well as the prospect of manipulation of the AM part microstructure. End users (in the aerospace and medical implant fields) are very interested but need to see validation of the technology in terms of material properties.

The program of work will cover exploring the optimum process parameters of the NeuBeam technology to: 1. Optimise NeuBeam processing rates for Ti alloys 2. Optimising NeuBeamTi part density as assessed using X-ray Computer Tomography 3. Controlling part surface topography 4. Demonstrating control of Ti part microstructure and minimising thermal cracking using NeuBeam techniques 5. Investigate the mechanical properties of part obtained by NeuBeam AM 6. Exploring the production of fine lattice structures beyond the scope of conventional E-Beam AM using NeuBeam methods.

This project is a partnership between the EPSRC Future Metrology Hub and Wayland Additive Ltd. Wayland Additive is a very young start-up company that has formed from seed R&D carried out by Reliance Precision Limited. Significant periods of study will be spent at the sponsoring company which is less than 5km from the University The company will provide an additional top up to any bursary associated with the project to the tune of £1000 pa.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

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Outline

Renewable energy is an essential source for harnessing natural forces such as wind energy in an age which is very conscious of the environmental effects of burning fossil fuels, and where sustainability is an ethical norm. Therefore, the focus is currently on both the adequacy of long-term energy supply, as well as the environmental implications of particular sources. In that regard, the near certainty of costs being imposed on carbon dioxide emissions in developed countries has profoundly changed the economic outlook of clean energy sources. Wind turbines have vastly been developed in recent decades due to technology becoming more advanced. Since there is a continuous exhaustion of fossil fuels, it is of high interest with government encouragement to utilise wind technology. Wind turbines are currently advancing into cross-flow vertical axis operation, whereby research has shown a significant increase in performance compared to existing technologies. The need for sustainable energy sources becomes greater each year due to the continued depletion of fossil fuels and the resulting energy crisis. Solutions to this problem are potentially in the form of wind turbines, for sustainable urban environment, that have been receiving increased support. At present, a number of wind turbines have been developed that show significant increase in performance compared to existing technologies.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

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Outline

The provision of cost-effective systems for meeting the distributed electricity generation needs is one of the research and innovation challenges. Here, one of the key requirements is the development of systems that would work for prolonged periods of time without the need of frequent maintenance, and ideally would utilise renewable energy sources such as solar energy. One of the possible technical solutions is the application of the novel emerging technology, with a significant future potential, referred to as “Thermoacoustic Technology”. This offers efficient energy conversion mechanisms without the need for any moving parts. This project will investigate the provision of distributed electricity generation for either industrial or domestic applications by using the coupling between a solar power driven “thermoacoustic engine” (which produces high density acoustic energy out of a solar-thermal input) and an energy converter referred to as a "linear alternator" for producing electrical power from an acoustic input. In general, the underlying thermoacoustic effect relies on the energy transfer between a compressible fluid and a solid material in the presence of an acoustic wave, and produces energy conversion mechanisms similar to those present in Stirling cycles. However, a thermoacoustic cycle is realised without expensive hardware associated with classical Stirling devices. The project will utilise an existing experimental apparatus to demonstrate the application of solar energy input for producing the electrical output in realistic working conditions.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

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Outline

Forensic investigation is underpinned by Locard’s exchange principle: ‘every contact leaves a trace’. In the case of toolmark investigation, this contact results in a plastic deformation of the substrate material which is used to determine the likelihood of a certain tool having been used in a crime. Current examination of toolmarks relies on either greyscale imaging comparison techniques or comparison of 2D profiles gained using areal measurement techniques. There has been no published research regarding the use of the entire surface topography for the comparison/ correlation of toolmarks. The project would focus on: • Determining the characteristics of toolmarks and the best practice for measurement of the topography • Exploring casting techniques used when the toolmark cannot be transported to the lab (i.e. doorframes) and the effect of casting on the fidelity of the replica • Applying correlation techniques to the areal surface • Analysing possible error rates in investigation

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

Accurate portrayal of optimal system behaviours and identification of fault characteristic behaviours form the basis of process control through condition monitoring. Anomalies identified at onset may be controlled without catastrophic interference to process quality and production interruptions may be reduced or completely avoided. Continuous on-line monitoring of processes replacing scheduled time-based maintenance routines. Multivariate modelling of system behaviour during normal healthy operation and with induced abnormalities affords tolerance setting for early detection of deviations. Pattern recognition technologies give insight into operational behaviours from which rule based models are determined. The aim of this project is to develop robust methodologies for online measurement and assessment of system health and operational capabilities.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

The proposed research aims at investigating the properties of heterogeneous mixtures which are common in many industries including chemical, oil and gas, pharmaceutical, minerals, food, biotechnology and others. Characterisation of such mixtures is crucial for controlling the industrial processes as well as ensuring high product quality. During the research, suitable non-invasive and on-line measurement techniques, based on the combination of electrical impedance spectroscopy and ultrasonic transmission, will be developed. In the first stage, design and laboratory studies leading to construction of robust sensors to facilitate measurements in a selection of industrially relevant situations will be conducted. The measurements will be validated using independent techniques. The second stage will focus on modelling the propagation of the sensing fields which interrogate the mixtures and their interaction with the dispersions. The modelling will be conducted using a commercial package, FEMLAB, and will lead to construction of mathematical models predicting the sensor behaviour. (Industrial relevance: chemical, bio-technology, process, petroleum, chemical, food and drink)

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

Multi component and multiphase mixture flows take place through a number of industrial stems and contribute to a number of processes. Some practical examples of such flows are solid-liquid flow, solid-gas flow, solid-liquid-gas flow, oil - water flow etc. Some of the most common industries where these flows are encountered are Nuclear Industry, Mining Industry, and Chemical Industry etc. The operation, monitoring and control of these flows need detailed knowledge about the flow characteristics of individual components and individual phases. The problem becomes especially complex if the flows are taking place through complex geometries for example helical pipes, elbows valves etc. Through this project novel techniques will be developed to understand local flow features associated with individual components and phases and integrating this information to develop design tools/standards for these processes. The special computational/experimental techniques developed will enable quantification of interphase interaction mechanism. It is expected that the work carried out under this project will enable removal of empiricism embedded in design methodologies to a large extent. It will further allow development of methodologies to trouble free operation and energy use optimisation for such systems.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

A prilling tower is an integral part of any fertilizer plant. A hot fluid (normally urea) is sprayed from a nozzle at the top of the tower forming droplets of urea. These droplets fall under the action of gravity, releasing their energy content, and hence, forming solid prills of urea, which is extensively used as a fertilizer. It is often seen that a lot of the prills formed at the base of the tower doesn't have enough strength to remain in the form of a prill; hence, they disintegrate into powder, wasting an excessive amount of the product. This happens because of ineffective cooling in the tower. The current research work will look into the dynamic of vortex rings for effective cooling purposes within a prilling tower. Vortex rings are inherent in nature and have been a topic of interest for almost a millennium. The urge to utilise vortex rings for multi-purpose applications, such as in cooling of urea droplets in a prilling tower, has led to the development of various types of vortex rings. However, in-depth analysis of the flow phenomena associated with vortex rings is still very little known. This study will investigate the dynamics of a vortex ring's generation, propagation and its ultimate dissipation within a prilling tower. The effect of the geometrical, flow and fluid parameters on the rolling-up of the fluid's shear layers will be analysed using a number of analytical, experimental and numerical techniques. It is expected that this study will result into a practical device that can be installed on the top of the prilling tower, which can enhance the cooling process, hence substantially reducing the waste powder.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

Previous work shows that application of an array of synthetic jet actuators, embedded within wing’s lading edges, leads to a significant alteration (reduction) to the buffet excitation levels on the suction side of swept wings arising from the vortex breakdown. While this effect has been extensively documented, little is known about the underlying fluid mechanical processes. It has been hypothesised that the coherent vorticity originating from the orifices of the synthetic jets becomes rolled up within the leading edge vortices and interacts with large scale coherent structures originating from the vortex burst, so that the vortex filaments become kinked and dissipate more quickly than in an un-actuated wing. The proposed project aims at unravelling the flow physics behind these processes by investigating the propagation of coherent structures in the post-breakdown region (in both actuated and un-actuated situation) using either the optical flow diagnostics tool such as flow visualisation, LDA and PIV and/or CFD codes such as Fluent. (Industrial relevance: aerospace)

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

In recorded and mixed form, the history of metal music has involved a broad focus on achieving greater heaviness (Berger & Fales 2005). Importantly though, there is a broad lack of detailed understanding of what heaviness actually is. Changes in performance approaches (especially performance speed), levels of down-tuning - and aspects such as design developments in guitar and bass amplifiers - have impacted our perceptions of heaviness. However, regardless of how these characteristics might or might not inform a given production, a valuable parameter of effective heaviness is clarity. “Sonic clarity can enhance the energy, intensity and impact of each and every sound in a metal production, collectively strengthening the power and drive of the music’s rhythm structures.” Mynett, 2016. With this in mind, by focussing on the mix stage of the music production process, this project sets out to gain a detailed understanding of the correlation between heaviness and clarity.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

The importance of big data and artificial intelligence is increasingly emphasized in future manufacturing. It offers a tremendous opportunity to transform today’s manufacturing paradigm to the data-driven intelligent manufacturing, which allow continuously development of cost-effective manufacturing technologies with improved product quality.

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

The aim of this project is to research the efficiency of FPGA computing compared to CPU/GPU computing, using a novel approach in the form of cross-platform implementation using OpenCL.

OpenCL aims to remove the difficulties that lie within cross-platform programming by using a framework that allows a single design to be implemented on either CPU, GPU, DSP or FPGA. It also encourages the use of heterogeneous systems (for example CPU+FPGA) to improve development time and performances.

The proposed approach is to investigate the efficiency of the CPU, GPU and FPGA platforms through the use of typical distributed computing applications within the fields of engineering and science, with emphasis on computation time, overall development time and energy consumption.

In this project resources available in the School of Computing and Engineering will be used: QGG Campus grid, CPU and GPU clusters, and FPGA hardware, with possible access to Hartree centre - Maxeler FPGA equipment.

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

A hardware security primitives is a physical computing device that provides hardened, tamper-resistant hardware-based cryptographic security. True Random numbers find applications in a variety of fields, including cryptography, to provide security in modern systems for confidentiality, authentication, electronic commerce, etc. This work will explore the development of a digital system to generate random numbers that are synthesized and implemented on an FPGA device using stochastic algorithms. The student needs to design algorithms for generating random numbers. The algorithm needs to be neural network-based, designed using hardware description language (HDL), and implemented on the FPGA. The generated random numbers need to be collected back to the computer for analysis. NIST statistical tests need to be used to prove of the quality of randomness.

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

Ultra-precision diamond machining including turning, milling and various tool servo-based machining processes enables the adventurous design and fabrication of freeform surfaces of nearly arbitrary complexity. To achieve this, it requires the accurate transformation of optical functions to surface geometrical specifications, and the dynamic conditions encountered in machining process must be predicated and well controlled.

The aim of this PhD research project is to broaden the knowledge of design and manufacture of freeform surfaces in novel optical materials. A systematic research work will be conducted on freeform manufacturing such as optical function design, machining process modelling and optimisation, surface integrity and quality control. In particular, to overcome the limitations of conventional CAD&CAM packages on freeform optics, an analytical strategy will be developed for optical functional design, toolpath generation, pre-process error mapping and compensation of tool servo-based machining operation errors. Case studies will be designed and carried out to demonstrate the capability of developed machining technologies, for example the manufacturing and functional test of several freeform optics such as focus tunable lenses (e.g. Alvarez lens pair) and multiple freeform optics (e.g. the primary and tertiary mirrors of an imaging spectrometer).

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

This project addresses fundamental challenges of designing and optimising heat exchangers to be applied in the oscillatory flow conditions. These types of conditions are common in devices such as Stirling engines/coolers or thermoacoustic engines/refrigerators or air conditioning systems. The former is often found in cryogenics applications, the latter could be used as low-cost and low-maintenance technology for solar-driven power generation or air conditioning in the Middle-East. A common feature of such applications is a cyclic flow reversal and the associated hydrodynamic energy transfer, which is an integral part of the underlying thermodynamic cycle. In the classic heat exchanger analysis, the heat transfer correlations are derived for steady flows, but unfortunately these correlations do not work for oscillatory flows and so there is a gap in understanding the heat transfer (and fluid flow) processes and lack of reliable design guidelines. This project will focus on a mixture of experimental and modelling approaches to tackle these issues.

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

Most polymers are limited in their scope of use as a replacement for metals due to the differences in material properties such as strength, thermal expansion, creep, brittleness etc. In order to achieve the required properties, the components need to be redesigned to take the different material properties into account. To allow accurate design analysis, these properties need to be characterised and suitable mathematical models defined. The project will include characterisation of materials with suitable bulk properties to include the variable properties which can be used to improve the performance of the end product, such as polymer chain or reinforcing strand alignment. If a suitable constitutive model is not available, then the relevant mathematical modelling will need to be undertaken to provide the basis for design analysis. This will need to take into account the proposed manufacturing method, which may have influences on the final localised properties of the material. The models developed can then be used to design components which will be tested under typical operating conditions to validate their suitability for replacement of metal components. The student will need a thorough understanding of polymeric materials and non-linear modelling techniques, and preferably some experience of test methodologies.

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

This project is in the area of Thermoacoustic Technologies that deal with designing engines and refrigerators (heat pumps) with no moving parts. In refrigerators, an acoustic wave present in a thermoacoustic stack (or regenerator), which can be imagined as a series of narrow passages, imposes pressure and velocity oscillations, with a relative phase difference, enabling the compressible fluid to undergo a thermodynamic cycle similar to the Stirling cycle. This, coupled with appropriately phased heat absorption and release, enables “pumping” heat from the cooler to the hotter end of the stack (or regenerator) with no need for cranks, sliding seals or excess weight normally associated with conventional Stirling machines. A reverse process of establishing an acoustic wave due to the strong temperature gradients in the stack (regenerator) forms a basis for the operation of “thermoacoustic engines” – the useful acoustic power being extracted by the appropriate linear alternators. The aim of this project is to utilise the thermoacoustic principles described above in the design of a miniature thermoacoustic coolers that would be used for localised cooling of electronic components, such as for example computer processors.

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

Applications are invited from suitably qualified graduates for a fully funded PhD studentship (3 years) for Renishaw/Royal Academy Research Program within the EPSRC Future Manufacturing HUB for Advanced Metrology. The EPSRC HUB sets out to create ground breaking embedded metrology and universal metrology informatics systems to be applied throughout the manufacturing value chain as an essential tool to achieve significant growth and productivity gains in UK manufacturing.

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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Outline

Infrastructure systems consist of a number of sub-systems carrying a wide variety of solid-liquid-gaseous materials. Failure of one of the sub-systems may result in release of these materials in an uncontrolled manner. Risk mitigation strategies need to be designed keeping variety of leak scenarios. Furthermore, an array of sensors is needed to provide dispersion characteristics through a well-developed formulation. The information provided through such methods is limited in scope and accuracy in the present work a CFD based solution algorithm will be developed that integrates pre-developed flow scenarios with sensor array information to provide qualitative and quantitative pollutant dispersion characteristics. The developed system will be capable of informing real time pollution dispersion characteristics and will help in developing risk mitigation strategies.

Funding

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Deadline

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Supervisors

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The project proposed is to work with a partner company to progress their existing design to a working prototype stage. The company have a patented design for a solar powered generation system which they have demonstrated at laboratory scale, but now want to produce a full scale demonstrator to prove the concept at a workable level. The system is based on a standard steam Rankine cycle, but with significant efficiency improvements. It will provide a means of generating electricity 24/7 with no fossil fuel requirements. The module can be “stand alone” supplying several homes, “tied in” to a local grid to completely power a group of houses or small village type commune, or to operate a medical centre, emergency services. It can be positioned virtually anywhere that power is needed.

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This PhD project will work on the development of a virtual integrated manufacturing system for freeform surfaces based on our current freeform CAD/CAM framework. The virtual system will be developed with functional modules covering surface generation, toolpath planning, machining stability analysis and surface profile predication. The focus of the research is on the development of core data analysis modules for the surface characterisation of advanced freeform and micro/nano-structured surfaces. It will also include the integration of current operation methods and algorithms for decomposition, association, filtration, texture mapping and numerical parameterisation and characterisation into the metrology module of the system. The developed system will be evaluated against agreed partner-led case studies on creating complex and multiple freeform surfaces.

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The research project is to develop an abrasive machining method to the surface structuring of novel technical materials. The technical materials to be machined are 3D printed alloys or the hard-to-machine materials like Si, SiC etc. A typical case study will be focused on the surface structuring of SiC plate using special designed grinding wheels. Simulation work will also be carried out in this project to study the material removal mechanism and find the optimised processing parameters.

The selected PhD student will be trained to operate machine tools and other related measurement equipment.

The applicant should have Msc research degree on mechanical engineering/informatics or will receive his/her Msc degree before they start the PhD study in September. The applicant who has publications (conference/journal paper/book chapter) in this research area will have high priority.

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To develop a broadband optical interferometer for measuring surface roughness, to be deployable on a robot. The research should focus on the following areas: Compactness of design. Sensitivity to vibration. Time to capture height data for a 2d region of a surface. Robustness to different surface geometry and materials. Surface roughness in the range of Ra = 0.5 – 5µm.

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Current communications systems operate in half-duplex mode as it is generally believed that it is not possible to transmit and receive at the same time in wireless networks due to the strong self-interference created by the transmitter at its own receiver. Recent research has shown that the strong self-interference can be completely cancelled using analog and digital interference cancellation techniques to enable full-duplex communication. The immediate benefit of full-duplex communication is the doubling of spectral efficiency that makes a significant part of radio spectrum available for new applications and services. While the feasibility of full-duplex radios has recently been demonstrated for standalone wireless links, the challenges in the implementation of full-duplexing in 5G communication networks are many folds. Firstly, 5G communication networks involve multi-user communication in infrastructure or ad hoc mode. Secondly, multi-antenna communication is intimately linked to the ability to increase the spectral efficiency of a link without increasing the total transmission power, as shown by the advent of MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) systems. This project will investigate full-duplexing techniques in multi-user, multi-antenna communication set up in 5G communication networks.

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In the oil-gas fields, slurry flow, gas-in-water two phase flows, and oil-gas-water three phase flows are frequently encountered. Generally, the measurement of volumetric flow rate for each phase is of most interest, especially in subsea oil-gas production applications, where it is essential to obtain oil, water and gas flow rates in inclined oil wells. The problem of how to accurately measure these flow parameters for such complicated flow phenomena, without using expensive test separators and intrusive technique, is a major challenge for the industry. Most conventional multiphase flow meters have severe limitations regarding types of flow and their measurement reliability. Some useful techniques containing radioactive sources are available but they are expensive and potential harmful to humans. Thus, the new developed system will be capable of measuring the local volume fraction local distribution and local velocity distributions of each phase based on tomographic techniques that does not contain a radioactive source.

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The UK Government's Made Smarter review (2017) observed, "The automation of manufacturing processes, coupled with real-time process monitoring and re-engineering, can result in radical improvements in cost, efficiency and accuracy, allowing work to move back to the UK". This project is a direct response, and should prepare the successful candidate for a productive and stimulating career in what promises to be one of the fastest-evolving areas of automation and advanced manufacturing.

The studentship will be based at Huddersfield's Laboratory for Ultra Precision Surfaces, in a new building at one of the Government's major research labs - the SciTech Daresbury campus near Warrington. The student will be immersed in a highly stimulating environment, as part of a growing strategic-partnership between the two organisations and other collaborators. Supervision will be provided by Huddersfield's process-expert (Walker) based at Daresbury, and Al-expert (McCluskey) on-campus at Huddersfield.

The project will utilise advanced robotic equipment and measuring instruments for processing ultraprecision surfaces. At these extreme precisions, processes fall short of perfect-predictability, demanding repeated process measurement cycles to converge on specification, which drives manufacturing risk, cost and time. It also requires highly-skilled operators to make process decisions, who are in declining supply worldwide. The core objective is thus to enhance process-predictability. Surfaces are inaccessible for measurement during processing, so indirect diagnostic-data related to removing material will be monitored. Opportunities abound for the student to contribute to data-harvesting hardware & software, and process-trials, depending on personal skills and interest.

In principle, it should be possible to derive instantaneous removal-rates from real-time data. If so, integrating these rates could give estimates of accumulating removal-depth over the surface, throughout each process-step. At the end of a step, predicted-removal could be compared with direct surface-measurements, giving information to refine the prediction. In reality, the underlying relationships are highly complex, due to interplay of physical and chemical mechanisms at atomic scales. The project's approach will be to amass comprehensive real-time data, alongside post-process measurements, with Al techniques developed to seek meaningful relationships underlying the data. Once established, the project will investigate how the real-time data can be used to make decisions 'on the fly' to keep processing on-track, improving convergence, reducing defects, and decreasing manufacturing time and cost.

Beyond this, the data will undoubtedly reveal new insights into fundamental mechanisms of processes and why variability occurs - which could prove a fertile research-area in its own right.

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This research aims at tackling the current challenges in AM by introducing novel in-process optical sensing tools for dynamic surface measurement, and real-time data analysis methods for surface assessment. A fast 3D fringe projection system with the ability to achieve simultaneous 3D shape acquisition, reconstruction and display in real time will be developed and implemented for in-process AM process. These innovations could advance fundamental understanding of AM processes, and ultimately lead to systematic tools to control the end-product performance of AM.

The main objectives of this proposed research are: 1) develop dynamic optical sensing system that acquires 3D topography for in-process AM. 2) achieve real-time 3D reconstruction by developing novel computational methods including using advanced graphics-processing unit (GPU). 3) develop novel methods for system calibration and surface reconstruction methods to achieve desired measurement accuracy. 4) develop real-time surface quality assessment method for AM process surface characterization. 5) system verification, validation and experimental study.

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This project relates to the physics of multiphase flows, which are a common occurrence in many industries such as nuclear, chemical, petroleum, minerals or food (some of the examples being gas/oil flows in crude oil extraction processes or steam/water flow in helical heat exchangers). On the fundamental level, the project will attempt to study various flow regimes present in gas-liquid system, in a purpose built flow rig, with particular attention to flows in inclined pipelines. These are still not very well understood as most of the existing work relates to vertical and horizontal configurations. The techniques used to interrogate the flow may include high-speed video, pressure drop measurements, optical (LDA, PIV), electrical (capacitance/resistance) or ultrasonics. It is hoped that this will provide a detailed classification of the flow patterns associated with various flow conditions, fluid properties and pipeline inclinations. On the engineering level, the project will aim at developing criterial correlations, which could be used in future in the design process of industrial installations. In its basic form, the project will suit either mechanical, chemical/process/petroleum or nuclear engineering graduates, that is those who had exposure to thermo-fluids and measurement problems during their undergraduate studies. The problem may be suitably modified to accommodate also IT, signal processing and instrumentation engineers, by taking the focus off the flow itself, and instead contributing to the development of methodologies for flow pattern recognition, measurement and signal processing. (Industrial relevance: petroleum, energy sector, chemical)

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Material at high temperature suffers creep damage resulting in the failure of its structural integrity. The main cause for such failure is due to cavitation at grain boundary for most of the engineering alloys, but the current research and knowledge is primarily empirical and phenomenological lack of the scientific understanding. This project will further develop and apply the mesoscopic approach FEA simulation of creep damage at grain boundary level.

The prototype of the software has been nearly developed, but its applications have not been seriously perused. This project aims to produce parametric study to yield the insight knowledge of the local interaction and the grain boundary creep cavitation and damage. The result will provide a more accurate understanding of the cavitation damage at grain boundary level. * https://pure.hud.ac.uk/en/publications/development-of-the-fe-in-house-procedure-for-creep-damage-simulat

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Fear learning has been a strong source of inspiration for developing flexible and adaptive artificial intelligence in electronic systems. The project aims at developing a robot movement following an unexpected event that induces fear. The work will study spiking neural networks based controller for driving the robot, establishing a variety of tasks, and its intelligent modifications to adapt to a fearful situation. The robot models need to be designed in an FPGA (Field Programmable Array devices) using a standard HDL (hardware description language). The robotic platforms preferably would a raspberry-pi based, which interacts with the FPGA over a WIFi connection.

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In this project the use of aerodynamic bearings to support the rotor shaft in automotive turbochargers will be investigated. The proposed bearing is supported by a metal foil structure when the shaft rotation is insufficient to generate the aerodynamic forces required to make the bearing self-supporting. The project will include:

• Investigation of the operational requirements for automotive turbocharger rotor bearings comprising load, stiffness and damping characteristics, operating conditions including temperature, shaft speed, gas and inertial loading and importantly, bearing and shaft sizes.

•Development of the multi-physics numerical models required to simulate the aerodynamic effect, the interaction of the generated air film with the metal foil support structure and the damping characteristics provided by friction between the components of the foil support structure.

•Generation of experimental data to validate the numerical models including the design and manufacture of a bearing test rig.

•Production of characteristic load, stiffness and damping curves for foil backed aerodynamic bearings using the validated numerical model.

•Use of a constrained optimization approach to identify the range of feasible bearing designs for automotive applications.

•Modification of an existing hydrodynamic turbocharger bearing housing to use an example aerodynamic bearing and demonstrate the bearing’s feasibility on an engine test bed.

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Additive manufacturing technology, also called 3D printing, enables the construction of customised structures not possible with traditional fabrication methods. 3D printing for medical applications is expanding rapidly and is expected to revolutionize healthcare. For instance, nowadays many personalised healthcare products, e.g. joint implants, dental implants, personalised pharmaceutical drugs, are made by 3D printing. However, a barrier that impedes the increased uptake of 3D printed products to be used as more critical parts is their quality control and verification. Particularly, metrology is essential to ensure that products have correct geometries in all scales to achieve the desired function. Traditional tactile and optical metrology techniques are of limited use due to the light-of-sight restriction. This project will investigate how to use XCT to measure healthcare products, and to develop a set of characterisation methods to evaluate their dimensional accuracy, surface roughness and structural compliance.

(1) Dimensional accuracy The dimensions of customised healthcare products are patient-specific, which allows products to be personalised to match each patient’s individual needs. The measurement and assessment of dimensions of healthcare products are challenging, particularly for products with freeform shapes and lattice/porous structures. Effective approaches to evaluate dimensional geometry of healthcare products with complex shapes will be investigated.

(2) Surface roughness Surface roughness is playing a critical role in boosting functional performance of healthcare products, e.g. osseointegration of joint implants. As-built 3D printed surface is usually rough and often presents various surface topography depending on building orientation, layer thick as well as other relevant process parameters. Assessment of surface roughness in region of interest and the global uniformity using XCT will be investigated.

(3) Structural compliance For healthcare products with lattice and porous structures (e.g. porous scaffold in bone implant and porous lattice for drug release), structural compliance is directly relevant to product’s functioning. The connectivity of lattice cells, porosity rate, pore size distribution, surface areas and structure volume directly influence component’s function, e.g. stiffness, permeability. The evaluation of these measurands using XCT and their relation to functional performance will be investigated.

(4) Case studies A key case study will be to use XCT to quantitatively analyse the internal microstructure of AM lattice structure intended for drug delivery applications. This is via a UoH internal collaboration project with the School of Applied Science.

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The Institute of Railway Research is developing a full-scale railway bogie hybrid drivetrain test facility. The rolling-rail based test rig (similar to a rolling road in the automotive sector) will enable the study of hybrid drivetrains through combined simulation and testing of both the OEM bogie traction package and regenerative braking system, together with simulation models of batteries or other storage technologies. To facilitate this work, a simulation and testing environment is required which will allow the duty cycles of typical commuter train routes to be represented, together with a model of the traction and energy systems that make up a hybrid rail vehicle. The candidate will require skills in electrical and mechanical engineering and the ability to develop mathematical models within the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Practical skills would also be of a benefit as the work will also involve laboratory testing.

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The project aims at conducting a fundamental study of fluid mechanical and heat transfer processes occurring in stacks/regenerators and heat exchangers of thermoacoustic devices. In thermoacoustic devices, a standing/travelling acoustic wave causes the compressible fluid to undergo a thermodynamic cycle very similar to the Stirling cycle. This can potentially be utilised in constructing the next generation of reliable and energy efficient prime movers, refrigerators or heat pumps, without moving parts and using environmentally friendly inert gasses as working fluids. Unfortunately, the correct analysis of the thermoacoustic devices is hindered by the lack of understanding of the fluid mechanics and heat transfer processes which are profoundly affected by the transient and three-dimensional nature of the oscillating compressible flow and its interactions with physical boundaries. The proposed research will focus on investigating these complex phenomena in a purpose-built experimental apparatus, using a range of measurement techniques including Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF), Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and hot and cold-wire measurements, in order to determine the flow characteristics inside representative components of a thermoacoustic device. This work will be complemented by numerical studies where the transport coefficients obtained from experiments can be used to enhance the numerical models of the fluid behaviour to benefit future design procedures. (Industrial relevance: power generation, heat ventilation and air conditioning, refrigeration, manufacturing)

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Most successful studies of machining stability and tool wear condition modelling are based on the appropriate collection of high-value information. This is set of special signal features that appear when the CNC system loses stability. The collection of this information is challenging both for general research and for industrial application because of uncertain factors such as the environmental temperature variation, work piece material quality and unknown/unobserved system errors. To solve this problem, this project aims to develop an effective and intelligent algorithms to identify and classify the high-value information for traditional milling processes. The core tasks include: advanced signal processing and stability analysis; tool wear analysis and tool status identification; feature signal identification and classification by Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods. Advanced signal processing technologies , deep learning and machining modelling methods will be combined to achieve this goal . Through this project, the PhD candidate will gain an in-depth understanding of machining motion, machining dynamic characteristics and machining mechanisms. In-depth understanding of material mechanics and thermal conduction will be essential. They candidate with a mechanical engineering, physics or applied mathematical background.

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Scarcity of fossil fuels and rapid escalation in the energy prices around the world is affecting efficiency of established modes of cargo transport within transportation industry. Extensive research is being carried out on improving efficiency of existing modes of cargo transport, as well as to develop alternative means of transporting goods. One such alternative method can be through the use of energy contained within fluid flowing in pipelines in order to transfer goods from one place to another. Although the concept of using fluid pipelines for transportation purposes has been in practice for more than a millennium now, but the detailed knowledge of the flow behaviour in such pipelines is still a subject of active research. This is due to the fact that most of the studies conducted on transporting goods in pipelines are based on experimental measurements of global flow parameters, and only a rough approximation of the local flow behaviour within these pipelines has been reported. With the emergence of sophisticated analytical tools and the use of high performance computing facilities being installed throughout the globe, it is now possible to simulate the flow conditions within these pipelines and get better understanding of the underlying flow phenomena

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As the Industrial Internet of Things gains interest and traction in modern manufacturing industries, there has been a significant growth in the number of sensors embedded in machinery which follows with data transfer, storage and analysis. In metrology, it is crucial to perform calibration on instruments and sensors to achieve traceability across international engineering and scientific projects. Temperature is one of the most prevalent measurands and while bench top solutions and laboratories can calibrate such sensors, these could not be applied to sensors permanently installed in machinery. This project will look at new materials/combinations of materials that provide anisotropic or ultra-stable properties that may be combined in a mechatronic system performing, for example, reversal measurements, to perform in-situ calibration. The opportunity is suitable for a material scientist or a mechanical engineer wanting to work on a multidisciplinary project using materials to solve a metrology problem. The candidate will apply logical thinking and critical appraisal of materials, with a robust design of experiments to validate the proposed solution.

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Three-dimensional (3D) sensing for specular objects is required in many applications in research and industry. And most of the surfaces are high precision, inconvenient to measure. A practical method to measure specular surfaces is phase measurement deflectometry. Traditional deflectometry has been used as a 3D object reconstruction method for surfaces with weak (i.e., large radius of curvature) convex or concave surfaces. A full aperture optical surface test of a general convex surface has not been achieved.The proposed research project aims to develop an infinitive multi-sensor deflectometry system for general convex or freeform specular surface measurement. The proposed project will be able to measure the full aperture of convex surfaces. You are expected to develop new calibration methods and algorithms as well as the phase calculation algorithms for the infinitive multi-sensor deflectometry.

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Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapour deposition technique used to deposit thin films (<100nm) of material. PLD has been expanding rapidly since the early 1990s owing to the relatively simple conceptual set-up, the high deposition rate and the ability to deposit materials with complex stoichiometry. In PLD, a pulsed laser is used to remove (ablate) material from a target which produces a plume of plasma that flows from the target surface. This plume of material is then deposited on a substrate a short distance away where it forms a thin film. These thin films are subsequently used in a range of applications including compound semiconductors, dielectrics, ferroelectrics, electro-optic oxides, high-temperature superconductors and heterostructure (layered crystalline) materials.

The overall aim of this project is to develop a novel method of pulsed laser deposition, X-PLD (eXtreme ultraviolet Pulsed Laser Deposition), and to demonstrate the capability of this new technology by improving the efficiency of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer in solar cells. The proposed technique exploits a capillary discharge laser system operating in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The effectiveness of this technique will be demonstrated by depositing metal oxide thin films used as TCOs in solar cells and comparing these thin films with those generated using existing technology. The medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) facility, unique in the UK and situated at the University of Huddersfield, will be used as the primary analytical tool for this project.

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Large data analysis presents major computational challenges and novel methods of alleviating computational burdens are sought. Restricting input volume of explanatory variables is beneficial as an aid to timely convergence of algorithms and in de-noising signal information. Pre assessment of input variable quality is required to ensure convergence of predictive computational algorithms. Reducing input parameter volume by restricting both the number of variables incorporated in the model and refining the detail of input variables proffers a solutions. Compression of incorporated variables also forms a useful means of trimming input signals. This project seeks to investigate the potential offered by volume reduction methodologies on classification precision.

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This aim of this project is to develop fundamental concepts behind a ‘self-aware’ sensor that can holistically evaluate the full gamut of information contained within an acquired signal in order to determine not only the primary information e.g. height/distance but also to track changes in other secondary parameters such as alignment, calibration status, environmental/measurand variation. The initial work will develop analytical techniques for broadband interferometry e.g. wavelength scanning interferometry (WSI) in order to establish methods for separating secondary parameters from the primary measurement. Once the ability to effectively separate secondary parameters has been established, signal processing techniques will be expanded be adaptive based on the nature of secondary parameter variation. The possibility of adapting input parameters to the system will also be considered at this stage.

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This PhD will be carried out within the wider project ‘Next Generation Metrology Driven by Nanophotonics’, https://gow.epsrc.ukri.org/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/T02643X/1, which brings together researchers from the University of Huddersfield’s Centre for Precision Technologies and the University of Southampton’s ORC, to translate the latest advances in nanophotonics, plasmonics and metamaterials research into metrological applications (metrology being the science of measurement). Such approaches will allow us to overcome existing problems and to implement new methods and techniques that these new approaches make possible.

This PhD will focus on the development of a set of highly compact probes exploiting nanophotonic elements (nanostructured patterns that allow the precise control of light) to be used as the front end of a measurement instrument. This will not only allow measurements to be taken in areas that were previously inaccessible, but the additional control provided by the nanophotonic elements will mean that the illumination and collection of the light can tailored to specific types of task, and properties such as chromatic aberration be used to an advantage.

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Measurement and control of temperature is a common requirement for engineering and process industries. Control in machine tools is achieved by making positional adjustments to compensate for the resultant positional displacement. This project will develop a microcontroller-based closed loop system to control temperature fluctuations in machine tool structure by thermal management (heat input) to remain within specific positional tolerance limits and rate-of-change. The controller will have the capability of self-optimisations such as decision making on adapting to temperature changes and gradients.

The candidate should have a good understanding of metrology, concepts of measurement, temperature uncertainty and principles of control. The student should also have a thorough understanding of software architecture and appreciation of programming of microcontrollers. An appreciation of manufacturing and measurement is desirable to assist with the proposed test domain.

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Manufactured parts with complex structured surfaces have been widely used in automobile, bio-engineering, medical and consumer electronics etc. Compared with traditional ‘stochastic surface’, the complex structured surfaces have two significant characteristics: one is that they have complex base surface (reference surface/mean surface) which has complex shape, the other is that they have deterministic features with high aspect ratio on the base surface. The ability to adequately characterise these complex structured surface geometry features is crucial in the optimisation and control of such functional device/components. This proposed PhD project aims to develop an intelligent filtration framework for the complex freeform structured surface. It will be It will be achieved through fulfilling the following three objectives: • Develop a mathematical model for the intelligent adaptive filtration techniques, for example, the nonlinear diffusion filter; • Develop a smart unsupervised machining learning technique to segment and classify the features by using techniques such as active contour, level set. • Implement these practical algorithms in an efficient way, for example, use parallel computing through CUDA, open-source library.

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The project looks at using inverse problem approach to develop complex flow handling systems such as pipings, valves, radiators, heat exchanges for better effieciency, operation and reliability. These fluid handling systems may be handling single or multiphase flow systems. State of the art numerical, analytical and experimental techniques will be used for such purposes.

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The project looks at using inverse problem approach to design various electro-mechanical components used in industrial applications such as wind turbines with generators, marine turbines with power units, wave energy systems with power units for better efficiency, operation and reliability. State of the art numerical, analytical and experimental techniques will be used for such purposes.

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This project looks at using inverse problem approach to develop renewable energy systems such as wind turbines, marine turbines, wave energy systems, thermosyphons for better efficiency, operation and reliability. State of the art numerical, analytical and experimental techniques will be used for such purposes.

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This project will deliver a code for inverse design of blade surface for different climatic conditions. The wind turbine systems incorporating these blades will be expected to be effective in extreme weather conditions. The main benefit of this work will be to increase the efficiency of operation of wind turbines in cold regions which will also contribute to the improvement of turbine safety and lifetime.

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Material at high temperature suffers creep damage resulting in the failure of its structural integrity. For most engineering alloys, the primary cause for such failure is the cavitation at grain boundary, but the current research and knowledge is primarily empirical and phenomenological lack of the scientific support. This project will continue and expand the recent breakthrough in modelling of creep cavitation and creep rupture led by Dr Qiang Xu. It aims to aims to provide the better understanding of the cavitation and rupture processes by multiscale approach and correlating to other material research. It is anticipated to produce international excellence/leading quality output. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09603409.2017.1388603 & https://pure.hud.ac.uk/en/publications/modelling-of-creep-deformation-and-fracture

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In virtual reality (VR) applications, the quality of experience (QoE) perceived by the user is likely to be determined by interaction between audio and visual cues presented simultaneously rather than just the audio or visual alone. Although Audio-Visual Interaction (AVI) has been researched in many contexts, (e.g., speech recognition, visual realism, environmental noise perception, etc.), to date there has been no exclusive study conducted on the influence of AVI on the subjective audio and video qualities in relation to various objective quality degradation parameters. From this background, this PhD project will aim to provide answers to the following research questions. • If and how the perception of audio (video) quality is influenced by the presence of video (audio), and how much the video (audio) quality matters for this? • What are the perceptually relevant audio quality degradation parameters in various AVI scenarios? • What is the optimal perceptual weighting between the audio and video qualities in terms of maintaining high QoE in multimedia and VR applications? Theoretical findings from this project will have important implications for efficient and effective audio-visual processing. the applicant will need good knowledge in psychoacoustics and be proficient in MATLAB and C++ programming languages.

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The project will investigate modulation signal spectrum (MSB) analysis for the demodulation of cyclo-stationary effects at different high frequency resonance modes for monitoring the conditions of bearing and blades inside machine houses. Such bearings often operating at high temperatures such as gas turbines and large diesel engines, which is very challenge to be monitored. The research will investigate the broadband shift behaviours due to tribological effects between the sliding of bearing components. Then corresponding tri-axial responses measured by MEMS sensors at the free end of the rotors will be mapped to ones with low order stationarity and followed by MSB based noise suppression and nonlinear feature enhancements. Based on the behaviour of axial and radial responses, the modal response behaviours are characterised and subsequently based on for diagnosing the lubricity of defects of the internal bearings.

The techniques will be achieved with low cost MEMS accelerometers and can be deployed to monitor wide range of machines such as motors, aircraft engines, pumps, compressors and so on.

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Modern manufacturing requires a high-performance, stable platform. Online verification, including surface-finish inspection is perceived as a huge benefit. With industrial sensor technology growing, and interest in the “industrial internet of things” (IIOT) the potential for sensor networks with massive data output is becoming a reality for many industries. This project is looking for a cost-effect solution to implement online surface prediction and stability monitoring based on IIOT and edge computing with traditional Digital Signal Processing (DSP). By the end of the project, a novel sensing network will be constructed which can sufficiently provide system dynamic information for predicting the surface finish of manufactured parts. In addition, a reliable data fusion method will be developed to interpret collected signals as a function of deviation between predicted and measured surface information. Finally, the project will propose a prototype control strategy based on the feedback of this surface examination.

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This is a fully funded research opportunity with a full EPSRC standard bursary payable

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Embedded sensors are prevalent in many industries, either as part of the function of a machine or for conditioning monitoring or quality control purposes. There is a need to simplify their integration by moving from wired to wireless sensing solutions. This also enables retrofit or ‘add-on’ systems that can be installed on older equipment to extend their usable life. This project will research new thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting, capable of high efficiency with ultra-low temperature differentials and incorporating novel surface characteristics to provide useable power for embedded wireless sensors in modern manufacturing industry. Current technology typically exploits the dynamic nature of machinery through piezoelectrics, hot processes through Pyroelectrics or some other method such as photovoltaics depending on the application. Within the Factory of the Future concept, part of the vision of Industry 4, extensive sensorisation is required on machines with inert structures having low waste energy under normal operating conditions. The research challenge includes the combination of high thermoelectric efficiency, novel cooling and intelligent power management combined in a novel mechatronic solution. The candidate should have an interest in materials science or a physicist with an interest in cross-disciplinary research to facilitate the mechanical, control and material aspects of the work.

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This research will incorporate a literature review to assess the current state of the art in surface technology. The ability to map sound pressure levels across 2D and 3D surfaces allows the user to assess any anomalies within a space resulting from poor architectural design and/or unwanted sound sources. The project will also aim to incorporate the design of a working prototype that will offer a faster and more accurate method of surface measurement through the use of a distributed parallel measurement system.

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Material at high temperature suffers creep damage resulting in the failure of its structural integrity. The main cause for such failure is due to cavitation at grain boundary for most of the engineering alloys, but the current research and knowledge is primarily empirical and phenomenological lack of the scientific understanding. This project will work on the development of the methodology and its application to creep cavitation damage model at grain boundary, for high Cr alloy. The result will provide a more accurate presentation and modelling of the cavitation damage. * https://pure.hud.ac.uk/en/publications/development-of-the-fe-in-house-procedure-for-creep-damage-simulat

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This PhD will be carried out within the wider project ‘Next Generation Metrology Driven by Nanophotonics’, https://gow.epsrc.ukri.org/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/T02643X/1, which brings together researchers from the University of Huddersfield’s Centre for Precision Technologies and the University of Southampton’s ORC, to translate the latest advances in nanophotonics, plasmonics and metamaterials research into metrological applications (metrology being the science of measurement). Such approaches will allow us to overcome existing problems and to implement new methods and techniques that these new approaches make possible.

Lenses are a staple of optical instruments, but their size and weight are a real barrier to miniaturization of the instrument. However, by looking to replace traditional lenses with metalens alternatives real progress could be made. This project will look to develop lenses suitable for use in real world applications and whose performance is closely matched with, and optimized for, the requirements of several optical techniques (such a confocal, phase shifting interferometry and focus variation).

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Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) is a solution that targets the increase of productivity, improvement of product quality and risk management throughout the life cycle, based on the application of Uniform Modelling Language (UML), conceptual graphic model and informatics exchange techniques. For modern machining processes, the analysis of surface formation needs to consider vibration and thermal impacts simultaneously. An effective MBSE is an ideal solution for quickly identifying and adjusting machining plans based on the complete analysis of system stability from collectable information of the CNC. The target of this project is to design a 3D graphic MBSE which is suitable for precision metal-cutting tasks. The new MBSE needs to satisfy the following requirements: • An explicit and efficient information exchange system integrated with the 3D virtual CNC model • The basic data storage and management function • The basic signal processing and physical modelling of machining process • The machining strategy planning and self-optimization module The candidate should have a good background in computer programming, databases and mathematical modelling. A logical approach and an interest in manufacturing applications are essential.

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Precise and timely notice of abnormal behavioural patterns in mechanical processes is vital to ensure continued output quality and avoid unplanned interruptions or deviation from optimal operation. On-line monitoring of systems is now commonplace with a plethora of data available for analysis. Charting process behaviours and so identifying fault blueprints at the earliest possible onset is an essential modelling procedure. This project aims theoretically and experimentally to establish fault classifiers for monitoring mechanical processes. Thus sound theoretical models are first established then demonstrated and evaluated by application in an experimental setting.

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The vibration characteristics of rotors supported by bearings will be significantly affected by bearing clearances which are often arisen due to inevitable light wear during services along with thermal effects. Such clearance induced vibration often leads to pre-matured faults to various rotor systems such as wind turbines, gas turbines and aircrafts.

The clearance in bearings will introduce non-smooth and discontinuous nonlinearities in the system which makes it difficult to predict the dynamics of the rotor and develop effective fault diagnostic approaches. The aim of this project is to establish the analysis model of such systems and to solve the nonlinear dynamics using appropriate methodologies. Experimental test rig will be designed to validate the theoretical observations and nonlinear uncertainties due to incipient changes in the clearances and misalignments. It will lead to accurate signal processing tools to monitor the fault of clearance.

The project will require a good background of mechanical engineering. Vibration and dynamics are more suitable. Good theoretical background and implementation skills of numerical simulations using Matlab/Simulink and other software packages will be appreciated.

Wind turbine, aircraft engines, marine power trains, and compressors in different process industries will be the targeted applications in terms of the digital twin monitoring system.

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Material at high temperature suffers creep damage resulting in the failure of its structural integrity. The main cause for such failure is due to cavitation at grain boundary for most of the engineering alloys, but the current research and knowledge is primarily empirical and phenomenological lack of the scientific understanding. This project will continue and expand the recent breakthrough in modelling of creep cavitation and creep rupture led by Dr Qiang Xu. It aims to develop further the mathematics method for and apply to more accurately on the cavitation process with further improved accuracy. It is anticipated to produce international excellence/leading quality output. The experimental data to be utilized will be taken from primarily from X-ray Synchrotron measurement such as from Spring-8 (Japan) or ESRF (EC), et al. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09603409.2017.1388603 & https://pure.hud.ac.uk/en/publications/modelling-of-creep-deformation-and-fracture

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This PhD will be carried out within the wider project ‘Next Generation Metrology Driven by Nanophotonics’, https://gow.epsrc.ukri.org/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/T02643X/1, which brings together researchers from the University of Huddersfield’s Centre for Precision Technologies and the University of Southampton’s ORC, to translate the latest advances in nanophotonics, plasmonics and metamaterials research into metrological applications (metrology being the science of measurement). Such approaches will allow us to overcome existing problems and to implement new methods and techniques that these new approaches make possible.

Metasurfaces (surfaces patterned with arrays of subwavelength elements) offer a way to achieve the exquisite control light, and this can be used to reproduce the effects of traditional optical elements, for instance a metalens will focus light in the same way as a refractive lens. There is no reason though that metasurfaces need to mimic the effect of existing optical components, and if a single metasurface can change a wavefront in a manner that would traditionally need multiple optical elements all the better, there is then no need to align the different elements and make sure this is maintained. This will lead to the development of ultra-compact optical instrumentation, and allow the new possibilities that such control of light open up to be explored.

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Additive manufacturing (AM) is expected to have a profound impact on the way manufacturers make almost any product. It has already made transformation improvements to productivity and opportunity exists to go further. Surfaces generated by AM methods are normally complex and high dynamic in terms of surface reflection and diffusion. Currently 3D vision, photogrammetry, fringe projection and deflectometry are widely used for surface shape measurement. However due to complex of the AM processed surfaces none of the above mentioned method can satisfy the demand of the AM processed surface measurement. A multi-sensor intelligent measurement system for 3D high dynamic complex surface measurement is proposed. The system combines fringe projection, photogrammetry and deflectometry system to tackle the difficult of high dynamic and complex surface shape measurement. You are expected to: 1) develop the calibration methods for the system 2) develop artificial intelligent methods to select the best measurement system according the surface under test
3) develop data fusion algorithms to combine the data sets from multi sensors 4) verification of the measurement results and the multi-sensor measurement system

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To explore multivariate statistical modelling processes such as principal component analysis (PCA) to facilitate detection of abnormalities in process performance and condition. Whilst many variables may exhibit strong linear correlations many more do not and do not possess feasible transformation properties. Mappings may be one to many or possess enclosed domains so require higher dimensional kernel functions. Wavelet transforms may also be necessary to unlock salient trends and de-noise signals under consideration. PCA extensions, such as Kernel and Multiscale PCA offer potential solutions. The higher the degree of accuracy in modelling data dynamics the greater the predictive potential of subsequent models. The research aims to provide a novel strategy for detecting and diagnosing deviant events in mechanical processes by extending existing PCA practice and conjoining with current wavelet decomposition methodologies.

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This exciting project is for clean energy passionate candidates, as it will develop design and control methods for microgrid (neighborhoods) and Nano-girds (fully electrified large buildings). The project will consider the integration of 100% green generation mix supported by different energy storage technologies. The project will consider the feasibility of both the technical and economic dimensions of these energy systems. The candidate is expected to publish the developed solutions and the obtained results in top tier journals and conferences.

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Classification of categorical events using advanced statistical models to detect and identify component faults and deviations from normal healthy operation in mechanical processes is fundamental to modern process monitoring. Variability of operating conditions may be revealed through analysis of output signals recorded at strategic points of a process, vibration signals for example. Subsequently, tolerable degrees of imperfection in specific components can be established. Hence, predictive models are developed and inform process condition including quality and safety aspects. Experimental data generated from mechanical rigs with and without seeded faults is to be collected and analysed. Comparison of ‘normal’ behaviour with deviant behaviour offers a means of investigating signal patterns which indicate performance quality. Rules are thus established to identify operational problems and predictive classification models may be formed.

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Future generations of nuclear reactors will require advanced materials which can withstand the extreme conditions anticipated in such systems. These include elevated temperatures, high neutron fluxes and corrosive environments. Such materials are being developed around the world but need testing to assess their suitability and require investigating to understand the nature and driving mechanisms behind the micro-structural changes they will experience whilst in-service.

One way to rapidly-test candidate materials is to use ion beams which do not incur the hazards, costs and delays associated with neutron irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy allows the internal micro-structure of materials to be explored as changes on this scale determine the performance of materials at the macroscopic level of nuclear reactor components. The Microscopes and Ion Accelerators for Materials Investigations (MIAMI) facility at the University of Huddersfield combines these two techniques to allow the real-time observation of the dynamic evolution of radiation damage in materials under simulated nuclear reactor conditions. Being one of only a dozen such facilities globally which are able to perform such experiments provides unique opportunities for scientific discovery.

This PhD project offers the opportunity to use the unique capabilities of MIAMI to undertake research into novel nuclear materials produced in-house at the University of Huddersfield and also developed by our global network of academic and industrial partners.

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Radiation damage in nanostructures is an area of intense scientific research with applications in many areas. For example: the response of semiconductor nanowires to irradiation used to engineer such structures as well as to that experienced when in-service in extreme conditions; the design of radiation-hard nanoporous nuclear materials which derive their resistance from their high surface-to-volume ratios; and the understanding of radiation effects in nanoparticles exposed to extra-terrestrial environments to explore the evolution of the cosmos.

The processes behind radiation damage in materials are both complex and dynamic. Therefore, to gain fundamental insights into these phenomena and the mechanisms which drive them, it is invaluable to be able to observe the changes in real-time at the nanoscale at which they occur. The Electron Microscopy and Materials Analysis (EMMA) Research Group at the University of Huddersfield specialises in the investigation of radiation damage in materials using transmission electron microscopy with in situ ion irradiation which allows exactly this type of experiment to be performed.

The successful applicant will have the opportunity to use the Microscopes and Ion Accelerators for Materials Investigations (MIAMI-1 and MIAMI-2) facilities at the University of Huddersfield which combine transmission electron microscopes with ion beam systems to allow in situ studies of radiation damage effects at the nanoscale. MIAMI-1 has a track record of research in nanostructures including graphene, gold nanorods, nanodiamonds and semiconductor nanowires. The new MIAMI-2 has recently been completed with £3.5M funding from the United Kingdom’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and is a state-of-the-art facility with world-leading experimental capabilities. The PhD candidate appointed to this fully-funded studentship will have the opportunity to work alongside colleagues on existing projects on nanostructures to develop their skills and knowledge before choosing the specific area in which they are most interested in pursuing for their own research.

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In all FSI problems, a structure subsystem and a fluid based subsystem are coupled together and the resultant characteristics of the combined coupled system are different from each individual subsystem. Sometimes, in numerical simulation of FSI problems, the system is broken down into a fluid simulation subsystem and a structural dynamic subsystem, and the coupling between these two subsystems is maintained by a feedback/feedforward communication algorithm. There are several limitations of numerical simulation of either subsystems in FSI problems, and hence sometimes it is necessary to carry on experiments. However, setting up a complete FSI test platform is expensive or sometimes is impossible due to the size/equipment limitations or nonlinearities involved in either subsystems. Therefore, it is possible to use hybrid testing to overcome the difficulties of a full FSI test or to reduce the cost of testing. In this project a simple real-time FSI problem is considered as a combination of a vibrating structure with a fluid flow affecting the structure response. The interaction between these two subsystems will be maintained using properly located actuators. The project aims to address the challenges and critical technical problems of a real-time hybrid FSI testing, and shed light for designing a novel real-time hybrid testing platform for flexible structures.

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Digitalisation of manufacturing machinery is essential for future development in condition monitoring, advanced prognostics and performance improvements. The growth in the number and complexity of sensors being installed by OEMs on Machine Tools and the growth in IoT systems from providers like Siemens means that more and more data will be captured. Typically, standard temperature sensors or accelerometers are used to monitor the machine, but these provide limited capability for advanced capabilities such as error compensation for finite stiffness effects in the machine structure due to, for example, thermal and mass variation effects.

In this research a newly developed sensor, which uses phase resolved interferometry to measure the elongation of an optical fibre, will be used to measure the structural distortion of mechanical systems such as the main elements of advanced machinery. This could include CNC machine tools, precision artefacts and coordinate measuring systems. Since the system will be embedded onto the machine, possibly for its lifetime, there will be no possibility of performing calibration to ensure the readings continue to be accurate. This is essential if the data is to be used for calculating structural distortion so that the resulting errors can be compensated to improve the accuracy of the machine or measuring system. A detailed uncertainty evaluation of the measuring system will be performed, with areas of uncertainty identified and then solutions for tracking or compensating these uncertainties created. Concepts such as reversal techniques, material constants, controlled self-excitation and differential systems will be explored, simulated and then the novel solution implemented into the prototype measurement system which will then be used for monitoring and improving the performance of precision machinery.

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This project will address the following hardware constraints of 5G mm-Wave system:

• The mm-Wave band allows us to pack more antennas in the same place which reduces the antenna aperture, resulting in less power captured by the receiver. • The wider bandwidth makes the multipath profile sparse, resulting in a large number of resolvable multipath at the receiver. The complexity of the receiver will be extreme if all these multipaths are resolved. • This wider bandwidth requires an analogue to digital converters (ADC) of higher resolution resulting in a large amount of energy dissipated.

The project will tackle the above issues by designing new signal processing algorithms.

• Proposed signal to noise ratio (SNR) algorithms and the 30 channel will allow rejecting the nearby interferers by the help of angle of arrival (AoA) and angle of departure (AoD) improving the power captured by the receiver. • New techniques will be proposed where multipaths with higher energy are selected and resolved, resulting in reduced complexity and similar performance. • ADCs will be designed that will not operate at the Nyquist rate resulting in less power dissipated.

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The aim of this project is to provide a robust methodology for simulating the interaction between failed wheels in turbochargers and the housings designed to contain them. The project will require the use of advanced numerical simulation techniques and the acquisition of validation data by experimental means. The project will include:

•Investigation of the mechanical properties of wheel and housing materials over the range of typical operating temperatures.

•Development of a data bank of burst wheel configurations (i.e. size and shape of fragments) together with wheel speed and materials. This will be based on historical data held at Huddersfield.

•Expansion of the wheel failure data bank based on continued wheel testing.

•Development of experimental techniques to record the burst event and capture wheel fragments following burst to prevent secondary damage.

•Development of finite element models to simulate impact of the wheel fragments with the turbocharger housing. These models will allow for fragments of a range of sizes and shapes, a range of wheel speeds and variable relative position of fragments and housing features at the moment of burst.

•Use of the finite element models combined with stochastic analysis to determine the probability of worst case scenarios occurring.

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The aim of the research work is to develop an inverse design methodology to develop a unique surface profile for a required functional performance (flow behaviour) and hence it will involve development of an algorithm to generate surface profiles from geometrical parameters characterising the surface as well as develop molecular flow model for flow near the wall surface having artificially created roughness and establish quantitative dependence of surface parameters with flow features very close to the wall. Furthermore development of computational fluid dynamic simulations (continuum based) for flow over wall surface and establish quantitative dependence of surface roughness parameters with flow features away from the wall will be an essential part of this project.

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The importance of computed tomography (CT) measurements is increasing in the fields of dimensional and surface metrology. The typical workflow of a CT measurement, after the volume reconstruction, consists in applying an edge enhancing filter to remove the noise and performing the segmentation in order to find the object of interest. Modern CT devices may produce volumetric dataset of 2000 x 2000 x 2000 voxels, the size of the dataset is approximately 30 GiB. Though the data size is high, only a small portion of the volume is needed: the voxels around the surfaces of the objects. The total number of the voxels around the surface that has to be exacted is usually less than one tenth of the total number of voxels of the volume. The aim of the project is to is to use sparse volume data structure to convert a dense volume into a lighter representation. Using a sparse data structure allows faster filtering and segmentation processes. Mathematical models able to perform the segmentation of object with the accuracy required in the metrology will be designed. The candidate should design algorithms that work both multithreading CPU and GPU to use the advantages of modern graphical cards.

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This project is in the area of smart materials, one of the hot topics in the modern technology, and concerns the design of novel materials whose thermal characteristics could be controlled by varying the degree of geometrical anisotropy within complex/heterogeneous structures. The application of such materials is desirable in many situations including building insulation, automotive, electronics or defence. One simple arrangement for such smart materials is a suspension of disk-like particles in a liquid. Here, the modifier of system’s thermal properties could be an external field (electrical, magnetic), which could change particle orientation. Such structures could act as “shutters” for various heat transfer mechanisms (radiation, convection and conduction), or could be engineered in such a way that the ratio of one heat transfer mechanism to another could be controlled. The project aims at conducting numerical modelling of such materials in order to develop new concepts in controlling heat transfer processes. (Industrial relevance: energy, building and construction industries, defense)

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Additive manufacturing (AM) is paving its way toward the next industrial revolution. However many technical barriers still hinder its full commercialisation today. One major issue is that AM processes are not robust enough and AM needs measurement methods to control its process. This project aims to develop a set of advanced surface topography analysis techniques for the characterisation of additively manufactured (AM) products. Through characterising AM surface topography, the project will contribute to the optimisation of AM process variables, facilitate the functional evaluation of complex AM components and benefit the accurate geometrical measurement of AM products. The proposed research work include: (1) development of numerical analysis methods, including filtration and segmentation, to extract AM process signature features; (2) investigation of the relevance of area surface texture parameters to AM processes; (3) proposal of new parameters to reflect the unique characteristics of AM surfaces; (4) comparison of various surface metrology techniques for AM surfaces, including tactile, optical and x-ray computed tomography; (5) investigation of the influence of AM roughness texture on dimensional measurement; (6) investigation of the impact of AM process variables on produced surface topography; (7) prediction of AM surface topography in terms of AM process variables.

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Traditional approaches to cooling/refrigeration/air conditioning are commonly based on vapour compression cycles that are driven by electrical input to the compressor. In the age of “environmental sustainability” these have major drawbacks of using as working fluids chemicals that are harmful to the environment and draining the electricity that in some instances may be in short supply. This project will investigate the provision of cooling/refrigeration/air conditioning capabilities for either industrial or domestic applications by using the coupling between solar power driven thermoacoustic engine and a thermoacoustic cooler. Thermoacoustic technologies utilised here are one of the emerging energy technologies with a significant future potential for providing cost-effective thermodynamic conversion processes. Thermoacoustic effect relies on the energy transfer between a compressible fluid and a solid material in the presence of an acoustic wave and thus allowing for the construction of thermodynamic machines with no moving parts.

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Metrology systems cost is a major challenge inhibiting the uptake of embedded metrology more widely across many areas of manufacturing, particularly in those areas requiring high/ultra-precision. Traditional optical measurement, based on techniques such as interferometry, is often carried out by costly and sizeable instrumentation. Even where efforts have been made to miniaturise measurement technology, the underlying technology is bulk optics, which has a large component and assembly costs.

This project will investigate the creation of optical metrology systems on-a-chip, where monolithic photonic integration will be used to develop light sources, detectors and other sub-components necessary to development truly low-cost miniaturised sensors for the measurement of surface topography, layer thickness and displacement.

Optical design including modelling of components both in-air and in-waveguide will be required to develop front-end probing for the sensor. Gaining and applying a working knowledge of optical metrology techniques will be necessary to feed into the design and development of the monothically integrated photonic sub-components. Electrical and optical performance validation of developed photonic sub-components will also be an important activity. This will lead ultimately to complete systems integration, validation and a prototype device which will require the development of signal processing and calibration techniques prior to demonstration.

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This project relates to the prediction of railway track dynamics behaviour under train operation in view of predicting maintenance and design requirements. It requires the development of existing and new numerical modelling techniques, based on multibody system and finite element methods, to better predict track systems behaviour under its various forms (either ballasted or non-ballasted). A wide range of frequency needs to considered depending on associated damage mechanisms and in order to carry out design optimisation of the systems components. Key aspects of the work will be to develop improved understanding of the way in which the forces exerted by the train are supported and distributed through the rail, sleepers, ballast and substructure. The interdependent role of the subgrade in the performance of track and design characteristics is essential. Likewise improved rail materials have made a big impact on the performance of the rail but there is more to be done and this needs to be matched by improvements in other parts of the system. Discontinuities which exist at switches and crossings or rail joints as well as transitions zones are also key factors which need to be included in any analysis or model.

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Problem background: The ability of a train to brake effectively in low adhesion conditions is a consequence of the interaction between many train components; wheelsets, wheel-rail contact patch adhesion, dynamic brakes, friction brakes, sanders and brake controllers. In the presence of low adhesion conditions, the reduced accelerations achieved during traction and decelerations during braking, can significantly impact on journey times leading to delays across the network. Project aim: To optimise the train brake function at low adhesion conditions to avoid wheel damage, minimise braking distance, and minimise the power consumption. Project objectives: Develop a model for the current brake systems and validate it using experimental data. Propose and develop control system to overcome the current brake system problems at low adhesion conditions such as (train speed estimators, adhesion prediction). Propose a robust control strategy for the Wheel Slide Protection (WSP) to enhance the braking system performance. Study the feasibility of using electrical system instead of pneumatic system in the train brake system (performance and safety issues). Build Hardware in the Loop rig to test the developed control strategies. Candidate should have a degree in Mechanical/Electrical Engineering with strong background at maths and a good knowledge of MATLAB/Simulink software.

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Outline

The unprecedented growth of wireless traffic in recent years has led to the quest of next generation 5G mobile communication networks. The main targets of 5G network are 10-100x data rate, 1OOOx capacity per unit area, 10-100x connected devices, roundtrip latency(« 1ms), 10x energy efficiency, and support for Internet of Things (loT) applications. Motivated by the spectral inefficiency of orthogonal multiple access techniques in current mobile networks, non­ orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been recognised as a promising technique to significantly improve spectral efficiency of future wireless networks and is envisionedto be key component of the 5G networks. Power domain NOMA has been highlighted as a key technology to provide NOMA in 5G networks. In power domain NOMA, differentusers are allocated different power levels according to their channel conditions to obtain the maximum gain in system performance. Such power allocation is also beneficial to separate different users, where successive interference cancellation is often used to cancel multi-user interference. This project will develop highly-efficient, low-complexity, single-/ multi-user power domain NOMA transceiver solutions for 5G networks. The project will also focus on the applications of NOMA in loT where it is expected to provide useful results to achieve superior communication.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

The University of Huddersfield (Department of Engineering and Technology) has recently obtained from Ofcom an experimental licence for TV broadcasting in Ultra High Definition using the new HEVC codec (High Efficiency Video Codec-H265) in the area of Kirklees on Channel UHF 24 (498 MHz). The arrival of HEVC is a logical time for mature European DVB-T markets to consider switching to DVB-T2 and to introduce HEVC encoded services at the same time. The UK, for example, which already uses DVB-T2, would more than double its number of HD channels from 5 per multiplex to around 12 by switching to HEVC, thanks to the combined efficiency of HEVC, DVB-T2 and statistical multiplexing. Germany has recently launched DVB-T2 services with HEVC using the robust indoor reception mode to deliver up to 7 HD channels per multiplex to fixed and mobile receivers. A number of other countries are now actively making plans for combined roll-outs. This project requires knowledge of video processing-compression algorithms and of the DVB-T2 standard for digital television broadcasting. Various reception scenarios and geographical coverage will be investigated experimentally and theoretically during this project.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

This PhD will be carried out within the wider project ‘Next Generation Metrology Driven by Nanophotonics’, https://gow.epsrc.ukri.org/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/T02643X/1, which brings together researchers from the University of Huddersfield’s Centre for Precision Technologies and the University of Southampton’s ORC, to translate the latest advances in nanophotonics, plasmonics and metamaterials research into metrological applications (metrology being the science of measurement). Such approaches will allow us to overcome existing problems and to implement new methods and techniques that these new approaches make possible.

Within the project nanophotonic, plasmonic and metasurface elements will be developed for use as components of an ultra-compact instrument, however at this point they will still need to be combined with other elements such as light sources and detectors/spectrometers. This PhD will focus on the development, characterisation and optimisation of such complete ultra-compact instrumentation which can then be deployed in real world manufacturing environments in ways which are currently unfeasible due to the bulky nature of current instrumentation. Such work is not trivial, and will need to take into account the difference between the nature of the elements used and traditional optical elements, however success could have significant impact on advanced manufacturing.

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

Outline

This project relates to unsteady aerodynamics of swept wings and in particular addresses a challenging problem of the breakdown of leading-edge vortices. Vortex breakdown degrades the aircraft’s aerodynamic performance and induces flow field unsteadiness related to its varying location relative to the wing, interaction between port side and starboard side vortex breakdown regions, and generation of large-scale coherent structures causing significant aerodynamic loading. Current hypothesis is that the appearance of vortex breakdown is related to the overall balance of vorticity and the limited ability of the coherent vortex to convect the axial component of vorticity in the downstream direction. As the amount of vorticity continually increases, there comes a point when the excess vorticity can only be convected if the vortex structure changes. The proposed work will address these fundamental issues through wind tunnel experiments on a delta wing model using non-intrusive optical instrumentation and measurements of unsteady surface pressure. (Industrial relevance: aerospace)

Funding

Please see our Research Scholarships page to find out about funding or studentship options available.

Deadline

Our standard University deadlines apply. Please see our Deadlines for Applications page to find out more.

Supervisors

How to apply

We offer supervision to PhD level in a wide range of areas where we are carrying out state of the art research.

The School of Computing and Engineering has three institutes and a number of research centres and groups that cover a diverse range of topics within Mechanical and Electronic Engineering:

[*] [Institute of Railway Research|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/irr/]

[*] [Turbocharger Research Institute|http://www.hud.ac.uk/tri/]

[*] [Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/cimam/]

[*] [Institute for Accelerator Applications|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/iiaa/]

[*] [Centre for Efficiency and Performance Engineering|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/cepe/]

[*] [Centre for Precision Technologies|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/cpt/]

[*] [Adaptive Music Technologies Research Group|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/amtrg/]

[*] [Energy, Emissions and the Environment Group|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/eeerg/]

[*] [Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis Group|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/cmdg/]

[*] [Measurement and Data Analysis Group|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/mdag/]

[*] [Electron Microscopy and Materials Analysis Group|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/emma/]

[*] [Automotive and Marine Engineering Research Group|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/ameg/]

[*] [Music Technology and Production Research Group|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/mtprg/]

[*] [Systems Engineering Research Group|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/serg/]

To find out more about the research we conduct, take a look at our Research, Innovation and Skills webpages, where you will find information on each research area. To find out about our staff visit ‘Our experts’ which features profiles of all our academic staff.

Researcher Environment

The University of Huddersfield has a thriving research community made up of over 1,350 postgraduate research students. We have students studying on a part-time and full-time basis from all over the world with around 43% from overseas and 57% from the UK.

Research plays an important role in informing all our teaching and learning activities. Through undertaking research our staff remain up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, which means you develop knowledge and skills which are current and relevant to your specialist area.

[Find out more about our research staff and centres|http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/]

Student support

At the University of Huddersfield, you'll find support networks and services to help you get ahead in your studies and social life. Whether you study at undergraduate or postgraduate level, you'll soon discover that you're never far away from our dedicated staff and resources to help you to navigate through your personal student journey. Find out more about all our support services.

Important information

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When you enrol as a student of the University, your study and time with us will be governed by a framework of regulations, policies and procedures, which form the basis of your agreement with us. These include regulations regarding the assessment of your course, academic integrity, your conduct (including attendance) and disciplinary procedure, fees and finance and compliance with visa requirements (where relevant). It is important that you familiarise yourself with these as you will be asked to agree to abide by them when you join us as a student. You will find a guide to the key terms here, along with the Student Protection Plan, where you will also find links to the full text of each of the regulations, policies and procedures referred to.

The Office for Students (OfS) is the principal regulator for the University.